Understanding Your Eyeglass Prescription

Understanding Your Eyeglass Prescription You’ve recently had your eyes examined and you are ready for some new prescription eyeglasses. You were handed a piece of paper, with some numbers on it, as you left your examination. You are wondering what do those numbers mean?

Your eyeglass prescription consists of lens powers needed to give you the best vision possible.

What the Numbers Mean

Your prescription will consist of numbers that represent the lens powers needed to correct the vision in each of your eyes. A typical eyeglass prescription will look something like this:

OD -3.25 -1.25 x 175

OS -4.25 -1.00 x 165

Add +2.25

The first line of an eyeglass prescription is, by convention, for the right eye. It is sometimes noted as O.D. The left eye or O.S. is the second line of your eyeglass prescription. The first column number is the spherical power for each eye. It is indicated by numbers known as diopters usually in .25 steps. Occasionally you may see .12 steps but this is rare. Sphere powers are identified by either a plus or minus sign. This is a very important to know because a minus (-) power corrects the vision problem nearsightedness and a plus (+) power corrects farsightedness. So if the sphere power of your prescription is a negative number you are nearsighted and if the sphere power is a positive number than you are farsighted. The larger the number the greater the degree of nearsightedness or farsightedness.

The second column of your eyeglass prescription is called the cylinder power. If there is a number in this column that means that you have astigmatism. The same plus and minus number conventions as the sphere power apply to the cylinder of your prescription. There may be no number in this column or there may be a sph. or sphere written in this column. In either case there is no power so you have no astigmatism. It is possible to have astigmatism in one eye and not your other.

The last column of your prescription is the axis. This represents the direction or location of your cylinder power. If there is no cylinder power in your eyeglass prescription. than it cannot and will not have an axis number indicated. If you have a cylinder power then it will have an axis. This is a measurement in degrees from 0 to 180. Only half of the 360 degree circle are used because 90 and 270 would be identical.

So if you know your sphere power cylinder power, and axis for each eye, you know if you are nearsighted, farsighted, or have if you have an astigmatism.

Occasionally a prescription may have a prism power. This is usually for people who suffer from diplopia (double vision). It may be a fraction or a decimal such as 1/2 or .75. If there is a prism power it must also have a direction or a base. This is either up, down, in, or out. Prism is relatively rare in occurrence.

A multi focal prescription such as bifocal, trifocal, or progressive lens will also have an add power. This power is in addition to the sphere, cylinder, and axis and is indicated on the next line of the prescription. It is always a positive number such as +1.25 or +2.25. This is the amount of extra focusing power to enable reading or near vision.

The last number need to complete an eyeglass prescription and fabricate a new pair of eyeglasses is the pupillary distance otherwise know as known as “PD”. It is the distance, in millimeters, between the centers of the pupils in your eyes, for example 62. This is further described as distance PD and near PD such as 63/60. Distance PD is when you are looking straight ahead and near PD is when you are looking close. When you look close your eyes turn in, therefore the near PD will always be less than your distance PD. Each eye can also be measured individually. This is called a monocular PD. It would be expressed as 31/30 or 31/31 depending on your symmetry and facial feature. An adult PD varies little with time.

NOTE: A written eyeglass prescription may or may not contain a PD measurement.

Make sure your prescription is current by having your eyes examined regularly to insure you are seeing as clearly as possible. Eyes do change gradually over time and it may be so gradual that you do not notice. Routine eye examinations also screen for the silent stealers of sight such as glaucoma and cataracts.

Did you know that you have a legal right to obtain your eyeglass prescription from your eyecare professional? That’s right. Request your prescription at the time of your eye examination or request it later, it’s your right.

Source by William Becker

Doing Business In Singapore

The Businessman's Best Bet – Singapore's economic prowess is aptly embodied in its name: the lion city. With an economic infrastructure fit to rival even the best of Europe, Singapore is frequented by a healthy number of business travelers and global investors year-round. Its strategic location, amazing connectivity, great convention venues and superior hotels make Singapore one of the world's leading business hubs.

Strategic Location – Its central location in the growing business region of Asia places Singapore at an advantage over other countries. Surrounding the lion city are the fast-emerging markets of China and India. Its strategic location also allows it easy access to air transport facilities. More than 4,000 weekly flights depart from Singapore to more than 180 cities around the world.

Unparalleled Connectivity – All business people know that connectivity plays an important role in the cutthroat business world. Global Information Technology Report ranks Singapore as the "Most Network-ready Country in the World". In addition, numerous high-class hotels in the country offer Internet and teleconferencing services to its business guests. Businessmen will not have a problem staying in touch with the rest of the world while in Singapore.

World-class Corporate Venues – Singapore offers a wide selection of convention centers, exhibit halls and meeting avenues to the business-on-the-go. The Singapore Expo is a mega-scale facility for international exhibitions. The 25-hectare venue offers 60,000 square meters of indoor, column-free, exhibition space and another 25,000 square meters of outdoor exhibition space with 19 conference halls and meeting rooms and a host of support services. Another clearing business structure is the Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Center, one of Asia Pacific's largest convention venues with a seating capacity of 12,000. SICEC is located within Suntec City – Asia's Convention City with direct access to 75,000 square meters of meeting space, 5,200 hotel rooms, 1,000 shops, 300 restaurants and a world-class performing arts center. The Raffles City Convention Center and the Waterfront Conference Center are also great corporate-friendly facilities.

Superior Accommodations – Being no stranger to discriminating business guests, Singapore offers a wide spectrum of accommodation choices ranging from budget boutique to five-star fancy, all promising unmatched comfort and convenience of a great Singapore hotel. Even better, most hotels in Singapore have state-of-the-art meeting rooms and banquet halls with complete presentation and audiovisual equipment – perfect for smaller, more personal functions. Most Singapore hotels offer business centers and in-room communication tools like fax machines and IDD phones to address your business needs.

Singapore is any businessman's springboard to success. When visiting Singapore, stay at the Harbor Ville Hotel in Singapore. Visit our official web site and get our best rates with instant confirmation. http://www.harbourvillehotel.com/ or visit DirecWithHotels ( http://www.directwithhotels.com ) to get a listing of official Web sites of popular Singapore hotels.

Source by Jonathan Casuncad

The Best Vanderbilt Basketball Moments of the Past 7 Years

When it comes to college basketball, my favorite team is, without question, the Vanderbilt Commodores.

Sure I am biased because I went to school there, but this team has had some incredible wins in recent years. Here are the top 5.

2008 vs. # 1 Tennessee – A year after my graduation, Vandy was led by senior Shan Foster and Freshman AJ Ogilvy. Two days after Tennessee, Vanderbilt's in state rival, beat # 1 Memphis, Tennessee took the title of best team in the country. Only then they had to play at Vanderbilt and got wiped out.

2007 vs. # 1 Florida – At the time, Florida was coming off a national championship with each one of their players returned. They were expected ranked # 1 in country, though did not stand a chance against Vanderbilt. We stormed the court after the victory.

It should be noted that Florida went on to win the national championship again. So yeah, the Commodores should essentially have been given the title that year. Kidding, kidding.

2007 vs. Washington State – This game was not fun to watch. It was in the Sweet 16 and went back and forth the whole game. Derek Byars was out of his mind in this game and had a last minute block that literally saved the Commodores' season. Vanderbilt barely pulled out the victory and it was a great game.

2007 vs. Mississippi State – In Shan Foster's last home game at Vanderbilt, he eruted and scored 44 points, including 9 three points! This game was an out of body performance by a great player who could not have deserved it more.

2003 vs Mississippi State – This SEC Semi-final game went down to the wire. Like three times. Vanderbilt ended up winning this one in double overtime against a fantastic Mississippi State team under the guidance of Matt Freije.

Source by Thomas Stubbs

Getting Ahead With A Career As a Project Manager

If you are interested in a career that provides a good salary, consider employment as a project manager. This person will perform several duties in various settings. This is a field that will let you earn approximately $90,000 a year. Training will be required by Human Resources to obtain status to be considered for this position.

If you wish to go a step further and become a specialist, you will need further education. As a specialist, you can look forward to earning more, perhaps a six figure salary. An average salary for a project management professional is over $100,000 in the U.S. and some other countries. This position enables the employee to be responsible for the life of the project. You will be involved in all aspects of the project and not just in overseeing it.

For instance, you will coordinate a team to perform and be part of that team. Your knowledge will be used to plan the steps to take for the project’s completion. Earning only a certificate will not enable you this status.

You will need additional training on multi-tasking and have superior knowledge and skills. Besides managing the project and team, you must also report to your superiors on its progress. Risks must be determined by you. In this career, you are looked upon by superiors for saving or losing money on a project.

Keeping records and making and presenting reports are part of the job. The employer will expect you to minimize risks for their company along with suggesting new ways and options to help their company grow.

There is extensive training and degrees available to put you on track to meet this accomplishment.

Source by Michael Justice

Between Standard and High: The Latest on Videos

Admit it or not, anyone with an affordable android tablet uses it to watch some videos. Whether you are watching through a streaming website like YouTube or upload your own videos from another source, you would most definitely have used your tablet to view a movie, music video, or even just a snippet of a Vine video or something posted on your Facebook wall.

But then, like much of technology, videos have also progressed much, and you have come across "HD". For those who are in the dark about HD video and are afraid to ask for fear of being laughed at, here are some answers to questions that are certainly bugging you about the topic.

What is high definition video?

This is a term we often hear nowdays. There is no clear definition of what it is but what we know is that it reflects to any video that has a higher resolution than the normal. It is usually a video that has a resolution of 720p or 1080p. Format is also usually widescreen and has a display of between 24 to 60 frames per second. This is becoming a standard among video formats that are being released.

How is HD different from standard video? Is there really a huge difference?

There is a big difference between the HD and standard video when it comes to the specifications. Since HD video has a higher rate of frames per second, the video quality is definitely much better. The number of lines is also higher compared to the standard videos that we are used to. The video becomes seamless because of this and is less pixelated. You can definitely feel the difference if you watch a non-HD video in a wide-screen television as the pixels become more visible.

What are the pros and cons of having videos on HD?

Of course, there are 2 sides to every story and the same goes with HD videos. The great thing about this type of video is that the quality is high so if you have a big screen television, your viewing experience will be much better as it is formatted to view in a widescreen format. The downside of this is that the file is quite large so if you are planning to download it from the Internet, you would need a large capacity hard drive to be able to accommodate the files. Transferring them can also be a test of patience.

Can any tablet or screen show HD video? Are there any particular gadgets that can do justice to HD video?

There are a lot of affordable Android tablet computers models that can already accommodate HD video since this is becoming the standard when it comes to the videos that are produced slowly. The demand for such videos are increasing steadily that even streaming videos are submitted as HD. There are even some brands that already have HD-capable screens as well as having HD-capable cameras.

Source by Heather Brigs

Chat With Strangers – The New Way to Meet People Online

In this day and age, there are many ways to communicate with other people and even those who are on the opposite side of the globe. With the advancement of technology, avenues have been opened left and right to allow people to do more things than they have ever imagined. For the past decade the World Wide Web has developed into one of the most innovative ways to make life easier for everyone and open countless opportunities for more people. The internet is a great place to meet new people, make new friends and connect with old ones as well. That is why we see many websites that are put up specifically to make communicating and interacting much easier. One way of keeping in touch is done through chatting on the web. Several programs have been specifically made to suite such needs of people surfing the web. There are even those sites that are specifically customized for what the internet population is looking for.

One example of this is Omegle. This is a website that hosts online chatting with people and strangers. The website chooses at random and pairs you up with a stranger that you can have a one-on-one conversation with. This site was created by an 18 year-old from Brattleboro, Vermont who used the word Omegle as an alternate word for Omega. Here you can chat with a complete strange one-on-one and you will remain anonymous to each other other you decide to give out information about yourself. In addition to this, the website has an option of video chatting which may also be blocked if you are not comfortable in showing your appearance to the stranger you are chatting with. Although this site has also been plagued with controversies it would be advisable for young people to stay away from the site until they are of legal and a more responsible age.

Like Omegle, there is also another website that is based in Russia that employs the same basic concept. This website was also created by a teen-ager, seventeen year old old school student from Moscow, Russia named Andrey Ternovskiy. The website uses video conferencing as a means to pair up random strangers where the users can automatically click the next button if they wish to chat with someone else. Most of the people that are encountered in the website are from America and Europe. With a simple investment, creator Andrey Ternovskiy has been operating this website from his bedroom in the house and site earns through advertising links to online websites.

Source by Jeremy Sinclaire

Advantages of Renting Office Space

Rather than purchasing commercial properties for your businesses, you can rent office space as it can be a convenient solution for all your business requirements. Though purchasing a property can have a few benefits, it is not ideal for every business. In the present environment, following a huge financial downturn and recession that engulfed the world over the last few years; renting office space has turned out to be a great advantage for a lot of businesses. You can rent office space for various reasons, which includes the following list of advantages:

Save Money:

You will save money since you won’t be spending on the mortgage as well as the expenses that come along with owning premises. Instead you can use the money that you save towards your business to make things move along smoothly. Additionally, most offices that are put up for rent are usually ready and well-equipped for occupancy. So, if you intend to avoid the hassle of undergoing the planning and construction stages of your office, renting would be the perfect way to go.

Hassle-Free Maintenance:

It can be more affordable when it comes to maintenance. You won’t have to be concerned about any issues pertaining to the property as those will be dealt by the landlord. If something breaks or requires to be repaired in your office, a professional maintenance company will repair it without charging you as it’s included in your monthly rent. This facility also includes cleaning or maintenance bills, electric bills, water bills, phone bills and internet charges. Additionally, your company will be provided with security and parking spaces. These facilities can be highly beneficial for you as it can help to save huge amount of time and money.

All-Inclusive Amenities:

You can get state-of-art premises for your business along with lots of amenities. Moreover, office spaces can be personalized to completely suit your requirements – from size to services, small offices to large factory space together with other facilities such as furniture, electrical devices, telephones, internet access etc. Renting also provides conference, meeting and training rooms, a waiting or reception area, a kitchen, the cafeteria area and lounge to relax in the office. All these additional amenities can most certainly ease the whole process of running a business.

Offers Flexibility:

It can allow you to be flexible. When you are unsure about the success of your business or if you plan to relocate to some other place in the future then purchasing a space can prove to be a waste of money and time. Also, if you decide to expand your business and feel the need to shift a bigger premise or to a different location then having a flexible rent agreement can be more convenient than having to sell the property and re-establish the entire set up elsewhere.

Source by Jeff Molenda

Four Fantasy Football Strategies That Will Help You Dominate Your Home Or Work League

If you want to dominate your home, friend’s or work’s fantasy football league then this article will teach you three strategies that will help you lock up the big bucks! When I bring up a specific player it is more of an example than suggestion, because anything can happen on the field. You control what happens off it though!

These general strategies will ensure you show up on draft day prepared to dominate.

1. Rules and Scoring: Learn the rules and scoring of your specific league. This is imperative. You should know the answers to all of these following questions:

  • How many people do you draft?
  • How many of each position do you start?
  • Is it a Points-Per-Reception (PPR) league?
  • Does return yardage count?
  • How many points for a QB touchdown?
  • How many point do I lose for an interception?
  • Is it a keeper league?

You need to know these questions because all of the answers will effect how you do your research and rank your choices. In a PPR league, WR’s suddenly rise in value and so do pass catching running backs. Chris Johnson and Maurice Jones-Drew might be more valuable than, say, Adrian Peterson in a PPR league.

If your league is PPR and counts return yards, then a guy like Reggie Bush will probably go a round or two earlier than in a league without those rules. In many leagues QBs get 4pts a touchdown. In a standard set up where they get 6pts a TD, they are obviously more valuable.

Some leagues even start two QBs, so you will have to remember to grab an extra QB. In fact, you should know all your starting positions so you can ensure you get a quality starter at each position.

In keeper leagues sometimes youth and upside override production. Sure you might be able to draft Cedric Benson, but wouldn’t Ryan Matthews have way more upside for future years? These are the type of questions you have to ask yourself.

When you understand the rules of your league then you can start researching players. If you are in a PPR league instead of Googling “2010 Fantasy Football Rankings” try searching for “2010 Fantasy Football PPR rankings”. Also use common sense, if you are in a league that has an emphasis on a certain skill set/position, then players that bring that to the table will rise in value.

2. Research: Now that you know how to start researching – do it. Make your own cheat sheets. Don’t just use the Yahoo rankings. You can find free rankings in many places:

  • games.espn.go.com/frontpage/football
  • nfl.com/fantasy
  • fftoolbox.com/
  • fantasynews.cbssports.com/fantasyfootball
  • walterfootball.com/fantasy.php
  • bleacherreport.com/fantasy-football
  • sportingnews.com/fantasy/football
  • footballguys.com/

There are way more sites to look at but that gives you a good start. Go over as many of these rankings as possible and create your own list keeping in mind nothing but these above (or other) sites.

Then go through that list and rearrange based on your leagues rules. Use common sense and more specific rankings (like PPR rankings) to arrange your original list.

Once you have that list you can take it one step further by digging into your targets. Read up on coaching changes:

  • Saints’ Defense came up big last year after changing defensive coordinators.
  • Jets had a good fantasy D with the arrival of Rex Ryan.
  • Could Matt Forte and Jay Cutler have bounce back years with Martz at the helm?

You should do this step as close to your draft as possible. That way you can make adjustments for pre season injuries, hold outs or depth chart changes.

3. Draft Day Checklist: You got your research done and you are heading to drat day, what do you bring?

  • Your cheat Sheets: You just spent days creating them so use them. This includes bringing one big master list of all your ranked players. Keep your head in the game by highlighting everyone that goes.
  • Latest List of Team Depth Chart’s: Just in case you are scrambling in late rounds
  • A list of handcuffs: These are players who will be thrust into fantasy prominence by an injury to a starter. If you have an injury prone player you might want to “handcuff” him to his replacement. If someone else drafted an injury prone player you might want to grab his handcuff just to stick it to him.
  • A list of player bye weeks: You don’t want to have all our bye weeks all at once.
  • A blank list of everyone else’s teams: This can be huge, I always bring a list that has everyone in the pool listed with the positions under their name. When they take a certain position I check it off. This can be huge because if you notice everyone already has a starting QB then you might be able to hold off on your QB and build depth elsewhere. If you do this step you will instantly be ahead of the general population.
  • Drinks: Bring whatever your drink of choice is. Even if you are drinking alcohol, there is nothing wrong with bringing a bottle of water. Having water on hand could mean you get to keep your comfy seat. I would refrain from using that bottle to also relieve yourself though. That’s too far.
  • Arrive Early: You want a good seat so arrive early. I know people that actually put lawn chairs in the trunk of their car just in case the home owner runs out of seats.
  • Bring a clipboard – Good chance you won’t be at a table, so you better bring a clip board. You will get made fun of, but it will help.
  • Different Colored Highlighters: These can be handy if you want to identify potential sleepers or value for an upcoming pick. Also good to use to highlight your master list. You don’t want to be scratching things out in a fantasy draft.
  • Sense of Humor: You better bring your sense of humor because there will be little mess-ups along the way. There will also be people like me chirping about your picks. I am not above playing mind games. A little friendly badgering is always fun. You can also try to play mind games to make sure someone you want to choose isn’t drafted.
  • Bring your brain: Make sure you bring your brain as well, that means you pick a defense second last and a kicker last.

4. Play The waiver wire wisely: Now that the draft is done use the waiver wire properly. You NEVER waste your waiver on a kicker or defense. Wait until the waiver wire is over (usually Wednesday) and then pick up a kicker or defense for the bye week or as a replacement. You only use your waiver wire on people who can really improve your team. The perfect time is when a starter gets injured and a quality back up is available.

These four strategies will place you heads and shoulders about the average fantasy player. If you are looking to dominate your work or home league then remember to know your rules, research, show up prepared on draft day and play the wire wavier like a violin. Now that you have read this article, put it into practice and enjoy an exciting fantasy football season.

Source by T. Payne

Origin And Development Of Guidance And Counseling Practice In Tanzanian Schools

1.0. Overview

1.1. Background and History of Guidance and Counseling in General in School Practice and other setting

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the middle ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni quoted in Guez, W. & Allen, J. (2000). Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

Counseling is a concept that has existed for a long time in Tanzania. We have sought through the ages to understand ourselves, offer counsel and develop our potential, become aware of opportunities and, in general, help ourselves in ways associated with formal guidance practice. In most communities, there has been, and there still is, a deeply embedded conviction that, under proper conditions, people can help others with their problems. Some people help others find ways of dealing with, solving, or transcending problems as Nwoye, (2009) prescribed in his writings. In schools, presently if the collaboration between teachers and students is good, students learn in a practical way. Young people develop degrees of freedom in their lives as they become aware of options and take advantage of them. At its best, helping should enable people to throw off chains and manage life situations effectively. Unprecedented economic and social changes have, over the years, changed the ways in which we manage our lives. Consequently, not all the lessons of the past can effectively deal with the challenges of modern times. Effective counseling, especially in institutions of learning has now become important. Boys and girls, and young men and women, need to be guided in the relationships between health and the environment, earning skills, knowledge, and attitudes that lead to success and failure in life. The need for counseling has become paramount in order to promote the well-being of the child. Effective guidance and counseling should help to improve the self-image of young people and facilitate achievement in life tasks. Counseling should empower girls and boys to participate fully in, and benefit from, the economic and social development of the nation.

2.0. Definitions of Concepts

2.1. Guidance

Guidance is an act of showing the way for some people, like adolescents, who cannot find the right path. It is directing, pointing, leading and accompanying. Guidance is saying “Yes” to someone who is asking for help. It is saying “Yes” to an invitation of someone who wants a temporary companion along life’s way.

Guidance is giving directions to the lonely, confused, unloved, the suffering, the sick and the lost. It is pointing to some possibilities of thinking, feeling and acting. It is leading the person psychologically, emotionally and even spiritually to some newer ways of meaningful living. It is accompanying those who are fearful and uncertain, those who need someone along the rugged path of life’s journey.

From an objective point of view, guidance is part and parcel of the counseling profession. It is called directive counseling. High school and even college students need guidance when they are unsure of what choices to make or what directions to take. The guidance counselor “opens up” a world of choices for these persons for them to choose from. It is like presenting the universe when all that a person sees is the lonely planet earth. The guidance counselor enlarges and widens the horizon of people who sees only a narrow path or a concealed view of that path. Thus, the focus is on possibilities and choices.

Usually, guidance occurs in schools. High school and college students avail of guidance and counseling services in their school. More often, young people are unsure of what to do, how to react or respond, and how to act in certain choices. When this occurs, they need someone older, wiser and more experienced to show them the way, to guide them. This is the role of the guidance counselor to extend assistance when necessary to those who are confused, uncertain, and needing advice. However, some adults may need guidance too.

2.2. Counseling:

Counseling is guiding and more. It is a way of healing hurts. It is both a science and an art. It is a science because to offer counsel, advice or assistance, the counselor must have the knowledge of the basic principles and techniques of counseling. The counselor must be able to use any of these basic principles and techniques as paradigms in order for him to counsel well. However, it is not enough to use know these basic principles and techniques. The other important aspect is for the counselor to know how to counsel-the art of counseling. This aspect considers counseling as a relationship, as a sharing of life, in the hope that the person who is hurting will be healed. As a relationship, counseling involves the physical, emotional, and psychical or spiritual dimensions. The counselor must have the ability to relate to the counselee in an appropriate physical manner without being too intimate or too close for comfort or being too distant or aloof. The emotional dimension in counseling includes empathy, sensitivity and the ability to interpret non-verbal clues of the counselee in order to understand unresolved complexes or pent-up feelings. The psychical or spiritual dimension embraces the counselee’s “soul-content”—what lies inside. This is what is called the interiority of the person. The counselor must have the gift or grace of catching a glimpse of the interior world of the person, particularly his spiritual condition, for this is very important in healing the person’s hurts.

2.3. Other Definitions of the Concepts

Biswalo (1996) defines guidance as a term used to denote the process of helping an individual to gain self understanding and self direction (self decision-making) so that he can adjust maximally to his home, school or community environment. This process, however, depends on counseling. He also defines counseling as a process of helping an individual to accept and use information and advice so that he can either solve his present problem or cope with it successfully. He goes further remarking that sometimes the process helps the individual to accept unchangeable situation for example, loss of dearly loved ones and to some extent change it in its favour rather than letting himself be overcome by the situation. Guez and Allen (2000) remarked that it is difficult to think of a single definition of counseling. This is because definitions of counseling depend on theoretical orientation. Counseling is a learning-oriented process, which occurs usually in an interactive relationship, with the aim of helping a person learn more about the self, and to use such understanding to enable the person to become an effective member of society. Counseling is a process by means of which the helper expresses care and concern towards the person with a problem, and facilitates that person’s personal growth and brings about change through self-knowledge. Counseling is a relationship between a concerned person and a person with a need. This relationship is usually person-to-person, although sometimes it may involve more than two people. It is designed to help people to understand and clarify their views, and learn how to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices, and through the resolution of emotional or interpersonal problems. It can be seen from these definitions that counseling can have different meanings.

3.0. Origin of Guidance and Counseling Practice in Pre-Colonial Era

Counseling in Tanzania in different forms and with different interpretations, has existed in societies for a long time before colonial era. The differences and contradictions in present-day, have their origin in the social and historical forces that have shaped modern culture. In Tanzania people in all societies, and at all times, have experienced emotional or psychological distress and behavioural problems. In each culture, there have been well established ways and methods of helping individuals with their problems. However, there are no sufficient written sources about the origin of guidance and counseling practice in Tanzanian schools. But like other places before colonial era there were outstanding unique elements which held the societies together in their livelihood. The elements include the extended family system, including the clan and the tribe, chieftaincy, taboos, various forms of initiation and close links with ancestors and elders.

The village is the focal point of society. While each one of these elements is important, only a few are used to illustrate the role of guidance and counseling in present-day Tanzanian societies. Basically, traditional chiefs had multiple roles which included serving as a symbol of authority and as a regulator. Since these roles were accepted and respected by all, there was a clear direction in the day-to-day affairs of society. The elders, the chief included, were a valuable source of guidance and counseling for boys and girls. In most cases, the chiefs were regarded as a vital link between ancestors and the present generation. This link was strengthened by the rituals, ceremonies and taboos attached to them. It was easy to guide and counsel the young, since the rituals or ceremonies were also aimed at preparation for adult roles in society. The extended family, the clan, and the village, made society supportive. No individual regarded him/herself as alien. Counseling was readily sought and provided. The forms of guidance and counseling involved were given advice and sharing wisdom.

4.0. The Developments of Guidance and Counseling Practices in Tanzanian Schools

4.1. Guidance and Counseling Practices in Tanzanian Schools Trends

In realizing this perhaps, since we are thinking of the concepts in school setting, we should think the meaning of counseling in education discipline. One could think that the definitions given above on the term guidance and counseling, their meaning can be directed to education grounds and now give the meaning correctly. Guez and Allen (2000) pointed out that a term educational counseling was first coined by Truman Kelley in 1914 in Makinde, (1988), educational counseling is a process of rendering services to pupils who need assistance in making decisions about important aspects of their education, such as the choice of courses and studies, decisions regarding interests and ability, and choices of college and high school. Educational counseling increases a pupil’s knowledge of educational opportunities.

The ever growing complexity of society in Tanzania, coupled with social problems like HIV/AIDS and the rapid development of science and technology, place heavy demands on education. The school, as an important social institution, was required to adapt quickly to changing patterns, and help prepare citizens for tomorrow’s challenges. That is where guidance and counseling in the educational system should help boys and girls alike, to develop their capacities to the full. These include intellectual, social, physical and moral capacities. This help is of the most important in Tanzania as long as the history and age of education provision and in its systems found today.

Guidance and counseling practices development in Tanzanian schools can be traced back from the time when vocational education was emerging right at the colonial period. In the process of establishing counseling services in Tanzania, there was a need to first understand the underlying factors that influence people’s beliefs and perceptions about such practices. However, this is thought that was not taken in to consideration at the time and it may be up to recent time. It is especially important to understand the economic, socio-political, religious beliefs, customs and traditions, and cultural changes that are present in different regions of the country. Young people should be understood within this context, but also within the paradoxical situation of having to face the traditional and the modern world, but this is a big challenge to Tanzania and many developing African countries. During colonial period there were some form of vocational guidance under the career guidance and it was administered by career masters. But the career masters who were selected by the head of schools had no professional training in vocational guidance. In fact the duty was limited to helping students fill out employment forms and writing letters of application. In the missionary schools vocational guidance was confined to religious services. The teachers who were usually ‘fathers’, pastors, or reverends guided and trained spiritually inclined youths to become sisters, brothers, fathers and pastors upon their completion of formal education.

Apart of what could be done in schools in Tanzania, guidance and counseling was more or less a private family affair. Parents and relatives counseled their children on all matters of life management and problem solving. It is true that in many families the duty of general guidance was the traditional duty of senior members of the family, father, mother, uncle, aunt, and grandparents. In case of serious personal or family problems, counseling was done by a specially organized by the community as a competent in handling that specific problem. This is done without any knowledge obtained from formal or informal school system but rather through experience and age wise through collected wisdom. This kind of early form of counseling from school setting and community helped the young to be brought into the bright image of living in the future to the society.

4.2. Guidance and Counseling Practices in Tanzanian Schools in Post-colonial era

In several literatures and sources, guidance and counseling in education sector in Tanzania and some other African countries is regarded as the youngest discipline. This is evidenced by First International Conference on Guidance, Counseling and Youth Development in Africa held in Nairobi, Kenya from 22nd to 26th April, 2002 which pointed out that the Guidance, Counseling and Youth Development Programme was initiated in Africa in April 1994, following the First Pan African Conference on the Education of Girls that was held in Ouagadougou in 1993. It is designed to introduce or strengthen guidance and counseling in African countries. It focuses on capacity building in the countries involved and provides training at both regional and national levels on issues of guidance and counseling of schools and colleges.

What we can call professional guidance and counseling in Tanzania schools begin in the year 1984 following the National October 1984 Arusha Conference, where guidance and counseling services were endorsed by the government as and integral part of the country’s education system (Biswalo, 1996). The aim of the conference is to establish systematic criteria for secondary schools students’ guidance and counseling. Students were then advised, guided and counseled on matters concerning their job selection and student placement for further education. This job was assigned to career masters and mistresses as explained below, however, there were no sufficient guidance and counseling personnel not only in the responsible ministry but also in the schools.

Guidance and Counseling is now becoming slowly institutionalized and spread in educational institutions. Schools, for example, have to a large extent taken over the task of providing psychological support to boys and girls. However Biswalo (1996) comments that in Tanzania policies pertinent to guidance and counseling is still lacking. The Ministry of Education, however, has somehow tried to institutionalize the services within the education system by appointing career masters and mistresses. He continued saying that the personnel are charged with the responsibility of advising heads of secondary schools concerning students job selection and student placement for further education; to try and help students understands and develop interest in appropriate jobs or further education or training; to asses the students talents and capabilities and to encourage them to pursue careers or further education best suited to them and to help students solve their personal problems which may affect their general progress in school.

This is an impossible and realistic burden on these untrained personnel. It reflects the apathy of policy and decision makers regarding the new field of guidance and counseling in schools; the strength of the myth of planned manpower in which career guidance is erroneously regarded as redundant and the gross lack of trained personnel who would provide effective guidance and counseling services in schools. It is unfortunate that even after the National October 1984 Arusha Conference on the strengthening of education in Tanzania, where guidance and counseling services were endorsed by the government as and integral part of the country’s education system, the services are to-date still patchy and ineffective in Tanzania’s educational institutions. Guidance and counseling in this manner is discussed by different scholars in primary, secondary and tertiary education levels together.

5.0. Guidance and Counseling Practices in Primary and Secondary Schools

In primary school levels in Tanzania in actual fact there were and are no specified pupils’ teacher-counselors. However, the activity is left to teachers themselves to decide what is to be done since there is no programmed or time-tabled activity concerning guidance and counseling. Teachers are left to use part of the teaching to practice guidance and counseling in and outside the classroom although not all teachers have gone teacher-counselor training. As children enter school they need orientation on school itself, its environment, school community and the curriculum to motivate and develop positive attitude toward learning and school community as well (Biswalo, 1996). As the pupils grow older and pass through different grades they need to be directed in studying skills, overcome learning difficulties and other school related problems. But this activity is not performed systematically in primary schools in Tanzania.

In the case of secondary schools till to-date there is also insufficient programmed or time-tabled system of guiding and counseling students. In some cases this duty is left to discipline masters and sometimes to class masters and head of schools. At secondary school level, students would seek educational opportunities, information of all kinds and any other help pertinent to educational pursuits. These needs are catered to by educational guidance and counseling (ibid). At this level students are helped with subject choice, study techniques and tests and examination. Biswalo (1996) pointed out that sometimes during subject choice, pride of placing as many students as possible in prestigious streams, such as science, takes precedence over actual abilities, interests and aptitudes of students. He said this unfortunate situation has been born out of the lack of genuine educational guidance and counseling services in secondary schools.

The school has an important role to play in preparing pupils for continued secondary education, paid employment, self-employment and life in the community, as clearly set out by the Ministry of Education in the objectives for its secondary curriculum. Perhaps uniquely, there would be total agreement among pupils, teachers and parents over the relative emphasis a certain schools placed on the preparation for further education, with its focus on academic knowledge and the pursuit of success in the national examinations. That is, the secondary schools where counseling is not well performed placed little emphasis on citizenship and the development of a responsible attitude to life in the community at the local, regional or national level and employment opportunities. However, what is de-emphasized is the informal sector including self-employment but the emphasized is employment in the formal sector with its implied emphasis on white collar jobs.

5.1. Vocational, Career Guidance and Counseling

In Tanzania teachers have the capacity to directly influence their pupils’ choice of careers. The achievements and attitudes of pupils have been shown to be related to the characteristics and achievements of their teachers (World Bank, 1995; quoted in Nyutu, P.N. & Norman C.G. 2008). However, the influence of the school depends on the formal interactions and communication which take place between teachers and pupils in the classroom whereas television and radio, act through the informal interactions pupils have with these media. The influence of parents and siblings is through both formal and informal means.

That is in most cases in Tanzania and may be other states where guidance and counseling is rarely done in schools; parents play the big role to influence on their children’s choice of careers. Others who have lower level careers i.e. teachers, clerks, drivers, personal secretaries, soldiers etc. do not anticipate their children ‘following in their footsteps’ because for the children who are able to study to higher level sometimes saw these jobs as narrow and lacking in interest. However it is suggested that parents’ occupation might have influenced their children’s choice of careers, but this happened to children who have generic skills useful in such jobs, and a few may have job skills relevant to those jobs. Access to information through the media and other forms of technology is giving young people aspirations that, for the most part, cannot be satisfied in their own environment. Choices have to be made and young people must acquire the skills to assess situations and make informed decisions. There is no longer a natural, understandable order from birth to adulthood for the Tanzanian young.

Vocational guidance at secondary school levels is provided but in very few among others because of shortages of school or vocational trained counselors. For those lucky schools with these kinds of counselors, students are helped but vocational counseling is not emphasized because most pupils, teachers and of course parents push students to make long range plans of study so that to prepare well for the envisaged careers. These counselors plan with school administrators and teachers to provide appropriate class placement for students with special abilities or disabilities for course selection by students.

5.2. Tertiary Level

The tertiary level students are provided with orientation and other educational guidance and counseling. In Tanzania tertiary level have at least fulfilled the need of having qualified students’ counselors for both psychological and academics, though they are few in number. Here counselors play a big role in compiling comprehensive information on all aspects of the careers related to the training offered in the institution. Counselors sometimes integrate with administration or practicum department to organize field practices for students and even more rarely might contacts with relevant employing agencies (Biswalo, 1996).

6.0. Notion on Guidance and Counseling in Tanzania

According to the research by Sima (2004), professional counseling is yet to be recognized as a stand-alone profession in Tanzania and in many African countries. Nevertheless, the coming and setting of HIV/Aids in the country has strengthened the base for counseling. This is particularly because of the multifaceted nature of the HIV/Aids pandemic whose attention, unlike other human diseases, goes beyond the prerogatives of the medical profession. Thus, counseling is perceived as a crucial avenue for prevention of HIV infection through provision of adequate and relevant information, and for social and psychological support of people infected and affected by the pandemic. Ibid continued saying that since the emergence of the pandemic in the country, a number of non-governmental organizations have been offering counseling services however, there is lack of clarity on the type and nature of counseling services offered by these organization. The nature and characteristics of counseling clients also remain fuzzy.

In Tanzania the professional counseling as aforesaid is relatively a new phenomenon. Outwater (1995) quoted in Sima (2004) comments that before HIV/Aids epidemic, there was no formal counseling service in Tanzanian hospitals, no professional counselors and no formal system for training counselors. There was a need to fill this gap by training as many counselors as possible to provide optimal care for AIDS patients and their relatives (NACP, 1989; quoted in ibid). Since then many para-professional counselors have been trained in basic knowledge and skills of counseling. Currently there are many counseling centers working not only on HIV/Aids related problems but also different problems affecting Tanzanians. However, as counseling became popular with the advent of HIV/Aids, many people assume that it is only meant for people infected and affected by HIV/Aids and shy away from it for fear of being labeled (Sima, 2002; quoted in Sima 2004).

7.0. Problems and Challenges

The Tanzanian government have not yet formulated in the education policy issues pertaining guidance and counseling in spite of the crucially and necessity in schools. Biswalo (1996) pointed out that in Tanzania policies pertinent to guidance and counseling is still lacking. He continued saying that efforts directed towards fulfilling guidance and counseling needs are apparently thwarted by several difficulties including financial resources to support the even established tiny counseling activities in several schools.

In Tanzania till today counseling is relatively new phenomenon. There are no enough qualified counselors in schools and other education institutions. However, there are limited number of qualified counselors, they are either not utilized well in schools or they are engaged in other activities rather than what they are trained for. Some of school counselors are also teachers and they are fully occupied with teaching responsibilities. More surprisingly counseling is perceived as a crucial avenue for only prevention of HIV infection through provision of adequate and relevant information, and for social and psychological support of people infected and affected by the HIV/Aids (Sima, 2004).

There is slow growth of guidance and counseling in educational systems attributed to lack of funds, training facilities, and high turnover of guidance counselors to green pastures and in adequately trained counselors. For instance in many schools they lack counseling offices, trained teacher-counselors and counseling equipments. In terms of funds there are various options that can be explored to alleviate financial constraints. Special schools on behalf of parents in need can approach non-governmental organizations.

The absence of solid professional counseling association in Tanzania to set standards for the appropriate practice is another challenge (Nwoye, 2008). Also insufficient availability of professional counselor training programs in Tanzanian colleges and universities is another contributing challenge.

There are no efforts to establish counseling curriculum in secondary schools and colleges and guidance and counseling courses in the universities. Guidance curriculum and responsive services can then be structured to address the five content areas, namely human relationships, career development, social values, self development, and learning skills. A guidance curriculum could be taught to students at different levels or in small groups to address issues that are similar to them. For guidance and counseling programs to be effective in Tanzania, trained professionals should be employed to manage and offer services in schools. Such professionals should also be provided with relevant facilities and structural support. At the same time, universities and teacher training institutions will have to establish and develop programs that train professional school counselors and other guidance personnel.

There is still insufficient assistance in higher education institutions to enable students achieves their career aspirations. However, students today indicate a higher need for career guidance than students in the past decade. Students may therefore be encountering an increased need to acquire relevant career information that will enable them seek better paid jobs. Many schools have in the past appointed some teachers as career masters without providing them with the necessary training and facilities for career guidance. Such career masters usually assume that all students will end up in universities and only focus on helping students complete university application forms and no more. It is the high time for the government to set and implement the policy that will enhance guidance and counseling from primary schools to the tertiary level and in turn will develop programs that train professional school counselors and other guidance personnel.

8.0. Conclusion

Guidance and counseling sought to prepare pupils in their schooling program to enter into the world of appropriate work by linking the school curriculum to employment. For the school to be successful in this endeavor, subjects should be taught at a pleasant and convenient environment and should be made relevant and interesting to the pupils. Another factor that needs to be considered is the recruitment of competent teachers capable of guiding and counseling learners in relating what they teach to the job market. What is taught and how it is taught can have great influence on the interest and perception of learners. In Tanzania the spirit to plan and use guidance and counseling services in the effective development and utilization of their respective young human resources is evidently strong. However, as Biswalo (1996) said the efforts directed towards fulfilling this need are apparently thwarted by several difficulties. It appears total and enlightened commitment on the part of policy and decision makers is necessary and should be definitely surmount the problems.

The emergence of career development in western countries as a construct suggests that it may be an essential area in developing country like Tanzania where students need assistance; students particularly need assistance in selecting colleges and courses. To this end, the schools should offer a career guidance and counseling programme under the able leadership of qualified school counselors.

Source by Eugene Shayo

Sports Conditioning – The How and Whys to Improve Our Skill Levels

Everyone loves sport in one form or another and the majority of our population will have taken part or been involved with it at some time in their life whether it was at school, college or becoming a weekend warrior to play with some friends in a casual competition . Conditioning is a term that is used to describe preparation or training to increase our ability or skill level at a physical activity. Put together the two terms and we get Sports Conditioning and this is defined as any activity that enhances or Promotes our body to be better conditioned to any sports activity, whether that is to run, to jump to throw push to kick or to punch better.

Sports conditioning is not just performing an exercise to be better at a sport. In fact, because the movement requirements in sport are mostly activities that our bodies do on an everyday basis, the more we train these skills, the easier it is for us to get fitter stronger and faster! We just have to train them the right way.

So lets break down the fundamentals of everyday movement and once we look at these, we will see that they are the same as life skills we perform everyday. These include, balance, speed, agility, deceleration, power, strength acceleration. All of these are key components to an increase in sports conditioning in our competition whatever that may be. These drills for sports conditioning however need to be trained in the right order progressively and also mastered at a lower speed before moving to a more intense level or at the level that this skill is performed at in your sport.

So here is the key to getting that increase in Sports conditioning. Balance needs to come first as the component to train. To have better balance through all ranges of motion and in different directions allows us as the player to control and own our offensive and defensive position by being stronger and able to react more quickly that your opponent.

To train balance you need to be out of balance and have your body go through movements that have random angles and directions creating movement that our body has to react quickly to. If we are not in balance the body can not carry out a movement efficiently as a unit either with greater speed agility or strength without an injury occurring. Balance drills and equipment that will help us train sports conditioning include agility ladders mini hurdles the Bosu Integrated balance trainer and slingshot harnesses. These pieces of equipment help create an unstable environment to force the body to work out of balance and adjust to make the body learn to adapt to these challenges.

Once the balance has been mastered, people can progress to challenges which include speed work, deceleration and power acceleration and these sport conditioning drills can also use the BOSU Balance trainers, agility hurdles and slingshot harnesses.

As long as we ensure that the sport conditioning drills are graduated and not too difficult to achieve typically our body learns the tasks and is able to be better at sports conditioning and overall movement. So if you want to play better soccer, run faster, ride harder or lift heavier, the key is to combine sports condition with traditional strength and fitness training.

Source by Elaine C Baker